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alt : in_context_3_su.pdf Lesson 2 Grammar The Passive Voice Participles Used as Adjectives Get + Participles and Adjectives Context Hollywood 60 Lesson 2 We use the passive voice when the subject of the sentence is the receiver of the action. 2.1 The Passive Voice—An Overview EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Popcorn is sold in movie theaters. Old movies were fi lmed in black and white. Many movies have been made in Hollywood.Passive verb = a form of be + past participle subject verb object Active: The children saw the movie. subject verb by agent Passive: The movie was seen by the children. Compare active and passive. The object of the active sentence (movie) is the subject of the passive sentence. If the agent of the action (the person who performs the action) is mentioned, it follows by. uuU uuu 1. Who is your favorite actor? Who is your favorite actress? 2. What movies have you seen recently? Read the following magazine article. Pay special attention to verbs in the passive voice. CD 1, TR 08 Before You Read The Oscars Did You Know? Walt Disney has won the most Oscars ever: 26. The Academy Awards are given out every year to recognize outstanding work of movie actors, directors, and others who are part of the movie-making industry. These awards, called Oscars, are presented in a formal ceremony in Hollywood. Several people are nominated in specific categories, such as Best Movie, Best Actor, Best Music, and Best Costumes. One nominee is chosen to receive an award in each category. When the awards ceremony started in 1929, 15 awards were presented and the ceremony was attended by only 250 people. Tickets cost $10, and anyone who could afford a ticket could attend. Today about two dozen Oscars are presented. Tickets are no longer sold to the general public; invitations are sent only to people involved in making the movies and to their guests. Today the awards are presented in the 3400-seat Kodak Theatre in Hollywood. Until 1941, the winners’ names were already known before the ceremony and published in newspapers the night before the ceremony. Now the winners’ names The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 61 Compare active voice and passive voice in different tenses. 2.2 The Passive Voice—Form TenseActive Passive = Be + Past Participle Simple Present A committee chooses the winner. The winner is chosen by a committee. Present Continuous They are presenting an award now. An award is being presented now. Future They will pick the best movie. They are going to pick the best movie. The best movie will be picked. The best movie is going to be picked. Simple Past They announced the winner’s name. The winner’s name was announced. Past Continuous They were interviewing the winners. The winners were being interviewed. Present Perfect They have chosen the best movie. The best movie has been chosen. Modal You can see the movie on DVD. The movie can be seen on DVD. Language Notes: 1. Both the active voice and the passive voice can be used with different tenses and with modals. The tense of the passive sentence is shown in the verb be. Use the past participle with every tense. 2. If two verbs in the passive voice are connected with and, do not repeat be. The Oscar ceremony is televised and seen by millions of people. are placed in sealed envelopes and the envelopes are not opened until the night of the ceremony. Since 1953, Oscar night has been televised and broadcast all over the world. This show is seen by hundreds of millions of people. Viewers watch as their favorite movie stars arrive looking beautiful and hopeful. (continued) 62 Lesson 2 Read the following sentences. Decide if the underlined verb is active (A) or passive (P). The actress received an Oscar. A The actress was given an Oscar. P 1. The actress wore a beautiful gown. 2. Halle Berry presented an Oscar. 3. Halle Berry has been seen in many movies. 4. The director has been nominated many times. 5. Old movies were filmed in black and white. 6. Many actors live in California. 7. Many movies are made in Hollywood. 8. The names of the winners will be printed in tomorrow’s newspaper. 9. The actress thanked all the people who helped her win. 10. The actress was driven to the ceremony in a white limousine. 11. Hollywood was built at the beginning of the twentieth century. 12. Hollywood has become the movie capital of the U.S. EXERCISE EXAMPLES EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Before 1941, the winners’ names were already known before the ceremony. Today the winners are never announced ahead of time.An adverb can be placed between the auxiliary verb and the main verb. Affi rmative: The movie was fi lmed in the U.S. Negative: It wasn’t fi lmed in Canada. Yes/No Question: Was it fi lmed in Hollywood? Short Answer: No, it wasn’t. Wh- Question: Where was it fi lmed? Subject Question: Which movie was fi lmed in Canada?Observe affi rmative statements, negative statements, and questions with the passive voice. Never use do, does, or did with the passive voice. (Wrong: The movie didn’t fi lmed in Canada.) Active: She saw him. Passive: He was seen by her. Active: They helped us. Passive: We were helped by them. Notice the difference in pronouns in an active sentence and a passive sentence. After by, the object pronoun is used. The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 63 Fill in the blanks with the passive voice of the verb in parentheses. Use the tense or modal given. (simple present: give) The best actor is given an Oscar. 1. (simple present: see ) The awards ceremony by millions of people. 2. (future: choose) Which actor next year? 3. (modal: can / see) The movie at many theaters. 4. (present perfect: make) Many movies about World War II. 5. (simple past: give)Kate Winslet the best actress award in 2009. 6. (present continuous: show) A good movie at a theater near my house. 7. (simple past: make) Star Wars in 1977. 8. (present perfect: show)The movie on TV many times. 9. (present perfect: give)Over 2,000 Academy Awards out since 1929. 10. (simple past: give) In 1929, only one award to a woman. 11. (simple past: add ) When sound to movies? It in 1927. 12. (simple present: often / make) Movies in Hollywood. 13. (present perfect: film)How many movies in black and white? EXERCISE EXAMPLE 64 Lesson 2 Write an active sentence and a passive sentence for each subject. Choose an appropriate tense. Active: The test has 12 questions. Passive: The test will be given in a large auditorium. 1. Active: My textbook Passive: My textbook 2. Active: My best friend Passive: My best friend 3. Active: Some students Passive: Some students 4. Active: I Passive: I EXERCISE EXAMPLE 2.3 Passive Voice and Active Voice—Uses EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Compare: Active: The man ate the fi sh. Passive: The man was eaten by the fi sh. When the verb is in the active voice, the subject performs the action. When the verb is in the passive voice, the subject receives the action. A. Active: I see the Academy Awards ceremony every year. Passive: The Academy Awards ceremony is seen by millions. B. Active: Do you know the winners’ names? Passive: The winners’ names are not known until the night of the ceremony. C. Active: The Academy presents awards to the best actors and directors. Passive: The awards are presented every year. The active voice focuses on the person who does the action. The passive voice focuses on the receiver or the result of the action. Sometimes the passive voice mentions the agent, the person who does the action (A). Sometimes it is not necessary to mention the agent (B and C). The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 65 5. Active: Actors Passive: Actors 6. Active: Movies Passive: Movies The passive voice is used more frequently without an agent than with an agent. 2.4 The Passive Voice Without an Agent EXAMPLES EXPLANATION The invitations have been sent out. The winners’ names are placed in envelopes.The passive voice is used when it is not important to mention who performed the action. A. Active: Someone stole my wallet. Passive: My wallet was stolen last week. B. Active: Someone told me that you like movies. Passive: I was told that you like movies. The passive voice is used when we do not know the agent (A) or when we prefer not to mention the agent (B). a. One person is chosen to receive the award. b. Oscar night has been televised since 1953. The passive voice is used when the agent is obvious and doesn’t need to be mentioned. a. It is obvious that the Academy chooses the winner. b. It is obvious that TV stations have televised Oscar night. Compare Active (A) and Passive (P): A: You can rent DVDs at many stores. P: DVDs can be rented at many stores. A: They sell popcorn in movie theaters. P: Popcorn is sold in movie theaters. In conversation, the active voice is often used with the impersonal subjects people, you, we, or they. In more formal speech and writing, the passive is used with no agent. Fill in the blanks with the passive voice of the verb in parentheses ( ). Choose an appropriate tense. Hollywood was built in the early 1900s. (build) 1. Most American movies in Hollywood. (make) 2. Let’s get some popcorn. It’s fresh. It right now. (make) EXERCISE EXAMPLE (continued) 66 Lesson 2 3. Movie listings in the newspaper. (can/find) 4. Children to see some movies. (not/allow) 5. Hurry! The winners in ten minutes. (announce) 6. In 1929, only fifteen Oscars . (present) 7. Before 1941, the winners’ names in (publish) newspapers the night before the ceremony. 8. A new theater near my house at this time. (build) 9. We can’t get into the movie theater because all the tickets already. (sell) 10. Did you see the movie Harry Potter? Where it ? (film) 11. I went to the lobby to buy popcorn, and my seat . (take) 12. No one knows why the award “Oscar.” (call) 13. Slumdog Millionaire as the best film of 2009. (choose) 14. In a movie theater, coming attractions1 (show) before the feature film begins. 15. Sound to movies in 1927. (add) 16. The Kodak Theatre, where the awards (present) each year, in 2001. (build) 1Coming attractions are short previews of new movies. Theaters show coming attractions to get your interest in returning to the theater to see a new movie. The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 67 Sometimes the passive voice is used with an agent. 2.5 The Passive Voice with an Agent ACTIVE PASSIVE Active: Steven Spielberg has made many movies. Passive: Many movies have been made by Steven Spielberg. Active: Ralph Lauren designs many of the actresses’ gowns. Passive: Many of the actresses’ gowns are designed by Ralph Lauren.When the sentence has a strong agent (a specifi c person: Steven Spielberg, Ralph Lauren), we can use either the active or the passive voice. The active voice puts more emphasis on the person who performs the action. The passive voice puts more emphasis on the action or the result. In general, the active voice is more common than the passive voice when an agent is mentioned. Active: The fi rst Oscar ceremony took place in 1929. Passive: It was attended by 250 people. Active: The Oscar ceremony is popular all over the world. Passive: It is seen by millions of viewers each year. Sometimes the passive voice is used to continue with the same subject of the preceding sentence. Active: Steven Spielberg directed Star Wars, didn’t he? Passive: No. Star Wars was directed by George Lucas. We can use the passive voice to shift the emphasis to the object of the preceding sentence. Passive: The dress was designed by Vera Wang. Passive: The music was composed by Bob Dylan. Passive: The movie projector was invented by Thomas Edison. We often use the passive voice when the agent made, discovered, invented, designed, built, wrote, painted, or composed something. The song was written by Randy Newman. It was performed by him too. When the agent is included, use by + noun or object pronoun. 68 Lesson 2 Fill in the blanks with the passive voice of the verb in parentheses ( ). Use the past tense. 1. Mickey Mouse by Walt Disney. (create) 2. The movie projector by Thomas Edison. (invent) 3. Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare in 1595. (write) 4. Romeo and Juliet into a movie in 1968. (make) 5. My Heart Will Go On by Celine Dion. (sing) 6. Star Wars by George Lucas. (direct) Fill in the blanks with the active or passive voice of the verb in parentheses ( ). Use the tense indicated. I saw an old movie on TV last night. (past: see) The movie was filmed in black and white. (past: film) It will be shown again on TV tonight. (future: show) 1. Many movies in Hollywood. (present: make) 2. Steven Spielberg many movies. (present perfect: make) 3. We a DVD this weekend. (future: rent) 4. Vera Wang beautiful dresses. (present: design) 5. The actress a dress that (past continuous: wear) (past: design) by Ralph Lauren. 6. Who the music for the movie? The music (past: write) by Randy Newman. (past: write) 7. The first Academy Awards presentation (past: have) 250 guests. 8. I Star Wars. (present perfect: never/see) EXERCISE EXERCISE EXAMPLES The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 69 9. Computer animation in many movies. (present: use) 10. Movie reviewers predictions weeks before (present: make) the Oscar presentation. 11. Oscar winners the people who helped them. (present: always/thank) Change the following sentences to passive voice in two ways. Omit the agent. They gave the actress an award. The actress was given an award. An award was given to the actress. 1. They handed the actress an Oscar. 2. Someone served the guests dinner. EXERCISE EXAMPLE Some verbs have two objects: a direct object (D.O.) and an indirect object (I.O.). 2.6 Verbs with Two Objects EXAMPLES EXPLANATION I.O. D.O. Active: They gave Spielberg an award. Passive 1: Spielberg was given an award. Passive 2: An award was given to Spielberg. When an active sentence has two objects, the passive sentence can begin with either object. Notice that if the direct object (an award) becomes the subject of the passive sentence, to is used before the indirect object. Language Note: Some verbs that use two objects are: bring lend pay serve teach give offer sell show tell hand owe send take writeu u (continued) 70 Lesson 2 3. Someone told the students the answers. 4. Someone will send you an invitation. 5. They have shown us the movie. 6. They will give the winners f lowers. 7. Someone has given you the key. 1. Do you know how cartoons are created? 2. Are cartoons just for children? Do adults enjoy cartoons too? Before You Read The History of Animation Gertie the Dinosaur Created by Winsor McCay The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 71 Read the following textbook article. Pay special attention to active and passive verbs. CD 1, TR 09 Animated movies have changed a lot over the last 100 years. Winsor McCay is considered the father of animation. In the early 1900s, McCay animated his films by himself. He drew every picture separately and had them photographed, one at a time. Hundreds of photographs were needed to make a one-minute film. Sometimes it would take him more than a year to make a five-minute cartoon. In 1914, the development of celluloid (a transparent material) made animation easier. Instead of drawing each picture separately, the animator could make a drawing of the background, which remained motionless, while only the characters moved. Walt Disney took animation to a new level. He created Mickey Mouse, added sound and music to his movies, and produced the first full-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Many people think he was a great cartoonist, but he wasn’t. Instead, he was a great story editor and clever businessman who had other artists do most of the drawings. Today most animated films are not drawn by hand. The animation is done by computer software. Also special effects for movies, such as Star Wars, are done by computer animation. To create the illusion of movement, an image is put on the computer and then quickly replaced by a similar image with a small change. While this technique is similar to hand-drawn animation, the work can be done much faster by computer. In fact, anyone with a home computer and special software can create a simple animation. (continued) Walt Disney 72 Lesson 2 1901 Walt Disney was born. 1914 Winsor McCay created the first animation on film, Gertie the Dinosaur. 1918 Walt Disney opened a cartoon studio in Kansas City, Missouri. 1923 Disney moved his studio to Hollywood. 1928 The first Mickey Mouse cartoon was introduced. It was the first talking cartoon. 1937 Disney produced Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full-length animated cartoon. 1995 Toy Story became the first full-length film animated entirely on computers. 2009 WALL -E won the Academy Award for best animated film. The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 73 2.7 Transitive and Intransitive Verbs EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Compare: verb object Active: McCay created the rst animated lm. Passive: The rst animated lm was created in 1914. verb object Active: Walt Disney didn’t draw his cartoons. Passive: His cartoons were drawn by studio artists. Most active verbs are followed by an object. They can be used in the active and passive voice. These verbs are called transitive verbs. Active Only: Disney lived in Hollywood most of his life. He became famous when he created Mickey Mouse. He worked with many artists. What happened to the rst Mickey Mouse cartoon? I’d like to see it. Some verbs have no object. We cannot use the passive voice with these verbs: agree die look seem arrive fall occur sleep be go rain stay become happen recover walk come live remain work These are called intransitive verbs. Compare: a. Disney left Kansas City in 1923. b. The DVD was left in the DVD player. Leave can be intransitive or transitive, depending on its meaning. In sentence (a), leave means “go away from.” It is an intransitive verb. It has no passive form. In sentence (b), leave means “not taken.” It is a transitive verb. It has a passive form. Compare: a. Cartoons have changed a lot over the years. b. The light bulb was changed by the janitor. a. In a cartoon, it looks like the characters are moving, but they are not. b. The chairs were moved to another room. Change and move can be intransitive or transitive. When a change happens through a natural process (a), it is intransitive. When someone speci c causes the change (b), it is transitive. Compare: Walt Disney was born in 1901. He died in 1966. Notice that we use was/were with born, but we don’t use the passive voice with die. Born is not a verb. It is a past participle used as an adjective. uu uu 74 Lesson 2 Which of the following sentences can be changed to passive voice? Change those sentences. If no change is possible, write no change. Today they create most animation with computer software. Today most animation is created with computer software. Walt Disney moved to Hollywood in 1923. No change. 1. What happened at the end of the movie? 2. Someone left a box of popcorn on the seat. 3. Many movie stars live in California. 4. Paul Newman was a famous actor. He died in 2008. 5. I slept during the movie. 6. You can rent Finding Nemo on DVD. 7. They will show a movie at 9:30 in the auditorium. 8. They have sold all the tickets. Fill in the blanks with the active or passive form of the verb in parentheses ( ). Use the tense indicated. Walt Disney was a clever businessman. (past: be) His cartoons are seen all over the world. (present: see) 1. Walt Disney famous when he (past: become) Mickey Mouse. (past: create) 2. Walt Disney most of his cartoon characters. (past: not/draw) 3. Most of his cartoons by studio artists. (past: draw) EXERCISE888888 EXAMPLES EXERCISE999999 EXAMPLES The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 75 4. Walt Disney 26 Oscars. (past: give) 5. Walt Disney his studio to Hollywood. (past: move) 6. Walt Disney in Hollywood most of his life. (past: live) 7. Disney in 1966. (past: die) 8. Today’s animations using computers. (present: create) 9. Cartoon characters look like they . (present continuous: move) 10. Even today, Disney’s old cartoons beautiful. (present: look) Fill in the blanks with the active or passive form of the verb in parentheses ( ). Use the past tense. Ronald Reagan was elected president of the (example: elect) United States in 1980. Before he became (example: become) president, he was governor of California. Even before that, he as a Hollywood actor. (1 work) He in 53 Hollywood movies between (2 appear) 1937 and 1964. He a great actor, and (3 not/consider) he never an Oscar. (4 win) On March 20, 1981, the day the Oscar ceremony to take place, something terrible (5 schedule) . Reagan in an (6 happen) (7 shoot) assassination attempt. Fortunately, he (8 past: not/die) from his wounds. One of his aides, who was with him at the time, . Out of respect for the president, the Academy (9 also/wound) Awards ceremony for one day. Reagan (10 postpone) and continued to serve as president until he (11 recover) his second term in 1989. He (12 finish) (13 die) in 2004 at the age of 93. EXERCISE101010101010 CD 1, TR 10 76 Lesson 2 Find the mistakes with the underlined verbs in the sentences below and correct them. Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C. were Before the 1950s, most movies ˆfilmed in black and white. I like old movies. C 1. We went to see a movie. 2. I don’t like scary movies. I can’t be slept afterwards. 3. Did the movie directed by Steven Spielberg? 4. People in the audience are eaten popcorn. 5. The popcorn is fresh. It is been popped right now. 6. Popcorn sells in the lobby of the theater. 7. Before the movie, coming attractions are show. 8. At the end of the movie, we were left the theater and went home. 9. A lot of popcorn containers and candy wrappers was left on the f loor of the theater. 10. Some movies can be enjoy by the whole family. 11. Tickets can bought online ahead of time. 12. What was happened? I can’t find my ticket. 13. The theater is big. Fourteen movies are shown at the same time. 14. The movie is for adults. Children don’t permitted to enter. 15. I enjoyed the movie. Did you? 16. Parking is free at the theater, but the parking pass must be validated in the theater. 17. Some movies should not seen by children. 18. Senior citizens can get a discount on tickets. 19. At the Oscar ceremony, the actors are arrived in limousines. 20. The actresses wear beautiful dresses. EXERCISE111111111111 EXAMPLES The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 77 Fill in the blanks with get + the past participle of the verb in parentheses ( ). Choose an appropriate tense. Who got chosen for the part in the movie? (choose) 1. Reagan on the day of the Oscars. (shoot) 2. No one . (kill) 3. Did you for the movie role? (hire) 4. Famous actors millions of dollars for a film. (pay) 5. His car from in front of his house. (steal) 6. The little boy told a lie, and he . (punish) 7. Everything will little by little. (do) 8. The test scores to the wrong person. (send) 9. One student cheating on the exam. (catch) 10. If you leave your car there, it might . (tow) EXERCISE121212121212 EXAMPLE 2.8 The Passive Voice with Get EXAMPLESEXPLANATION Hollywood actors get paid a lot of money. I don’t like violent movies. A lot of people get shot and killed.In conversation, we sometimes use get instead of be with the passive. get paid = be paid get shot = be shot get killed = be killed We usually omit the agent after get. Compare: He was shot by a cowboy. He got shot three times. How much do actors get paid for a movie? She didn’t get paid last Friday. When get is used with the passive voice, questions and negatives are formed with do, does, did, and other auxiliaries. Be is not used with get. Wrong: She wasn’t get paid last Friday. She got hired for the job. He got laid off last month. Get is frequently used with: shot, killed, injured, wounded, paid, hired, fi red, laid off, picked, caught, done, sent, stolen. 78 Lesson 2 Charlie Chaplin was one of the greatest actors in the world. His entertaining silent movies are still popular today. His amusing character “Little Tramp” is well known to people throughout the world. Chaplin had an amazing life. His idea for this poor character in worn -out shoes, round hat, and cane probably came from his childhood experiences. Born in poverty in London in 1889, Chaplin was abandoned by his father and left in an orphanage by his mother. He became interested in acting at the age of five. At ten, he left school to travel with a British acting company. In 1910, he made his first trip to America. He was talented, athletic, and hardworking, and by 1916 he was earning $10,000 A present participle is verb + -ing. A past participle is the third form of the verb (usually -ed or -en). Both present participles and past participles can be used as adjectives. 2.9 Participles Used as Adjectives EXAMPLES EXPLANATION We saw an entertaining movie. Star Wars is an exciting movie. The Matrix has amazing visual effects.In these examples, a present participle is used as an adjective. What’s in the sealed envelope? I wasn’t bored during the movie. Are you interested in action movies? Do you like animated fi lms? In these examples, a past participle is used as an adjective. 1. Have you ever heard of Charlie Chaplin? 2. Have you ever seen a silent movie? Do you think a silent movie can be interesting today? Before You Read Charlie Chaplin Read the following magazine article. Pay special attention to participles used as adjectives. CD 1, TR 11 Charlie Chaplin, 1889–1977 The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 79 2In today's dollars, that amount would be close to $200,000 a week. The participles of a verb can be used as adjectives. 2.10 Participles Used as Adjectives to Show Feelings EXAMPLES EXPLANATION The movie bored us. (bored = verb) a. The movie was boring. I left the boring movie before it was over. b. Some people were bored. The bored people got up and left. In some cases, both the present participle (a) and the past participle (b) of the same verb can be used as adjectives. The present participle (a) gives an active meaning. The movie actively caused a feeling of boredom. The past participle (b) gives a passive meaning. It describes the receiver of a feeling. The people were bored by the movie. Chaplin had an interesting life. He was poor and then became very rich. I am interested in Chaplin. I would like to know more about him. The main character in Friday the 13th is a frightening man. I was frightened and couldn’t sleep after seeing the movie. A person can cause a feeling in others or he can receive a feeling. Therefore, a person can be both interesting and interested, frightening and frightened, etc. The book is interesting. The movie is entertaining. An object (like a book or a movie) doesn’t have feelings, so a past participle, such as interested or entertained, cannot be used to describe an object. Chaplin’s movies interest us. (verb) Chaplin’s movies are interesting. We are interested in his movies. (present participle) (past participle) (continued) a week.2 He was the highest-paid person in the world at that time. He produced, directed, and wrote the movies he starred in. Even though “talkies” came out in 1927, he didn’t make a movie with sound until 1940, when he played a comic version of the terrifying dictator, Adolf Hitler. As Chaplin got older, he faced declining popularity as a result of his politics and personal relationships. After he left the U.S. in 1952, Chaplin was not allowed to re-enter because of his political views. He didn’t return to the U.S. until 1972, when he was given a special Oscar for his lifetime of outstanding work. Did You Know? When Ronald Reagan was governor of California, he did not want Chaplin to be allowed back into the U.S. 80 Lesson 2 Use the verb in each sentence to make two new sentences. In one sentence, use the present participle. In the other, use the past participle. The game entertains the children. The game is entertaining. The children are entertained. 1. The movie frightened the children. 2. The book interests the children. 3. The children are amusing the adults. 4. The trip tired the children. EXERCISE131313131313 EXAMPLE Language Notes: 1. The following pictures show the difference between (a) a frightening man and (b) a frightened man. a. The man is frightening the children. = He’s a frightening man. b. The man is frightened by the robber. = He’s a frightened man. 2. Common paired participles are: amazing amazed exhausting exhausted amusing amused frightening frightened annoying annoyed frustrating frustrated boring bored interesting interested confusing confused puzzling puzzled convincing convinced satisfying satisfi ed disappointing disappointed surprising surprised embarrassing embarrassed terrifying terrifi ed exciting excited tiring tired The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 81 5. The game excited the children. 6. The vacation exhausted the adults. 7. The movie bored the adults. 8. Chaplin interests me. Fill in the blanks with the correct participle, present or past, of the verb in parentheses ( ). Last night my friend and I went to see a new movie. We thought it was boring . It had a lot of stupid car chases, which (example: bore) were not at all. And I didn’t like the characters. (1 excite) They weren’t very . (2 convince) We were pretty because the reviewers said it was a (3 disappoint) good movie. They said it had visual effects. But for (4 amaze) me, it wasn’t at all. I was that I (5 interest) (6 annoy) wasted $10 and a whole evening for such a movie. (7 disappoint) The only thing that was was the popcorn. (8 satisfy) ABOUT YOU Fill in the blanks and discuss your answers. I’m interested in sports . 1. I’m interested in movies. 2. Now I’m worried about . 3. In the past, I was worried about . 4. In my opinion, is an amazing (choose one) actor / athlete / politician. 5. I’m not interested in . EXERCISE141414141414 CD 1, TR 12 EXERCISE151515151515 EXAMPLE 82 Lesson 2 6. I’m annoyed when people . 7. is a boring subject for me. 8. I feel frustrated when . 9. I am amazed that in the U.S. 10. It’s not surprising that in the U.S. 11. Sometimes I feel embarrassed when I . 12. I was very excited when . 13. When I came to this school, I was surprised that . Some sentences look passive (be + past participle), but there is no action in the sentence. The past participles below are used as adjectives. 2.11 Other Past Participles Used as Adjectives 3These forms are sometimes called “stative passives.” EXAMPLES EXPLANATION a. No one knows the winners’ names because the envelope is sealed. b. Is this seat taken? c. Chaplin was born in England. In some cases, we are looking at the result of a previous action. We no longer care about the agent, and the action itself is not important. 3 a. Previous Action: Someone sealed the envelope. b. Previous Action: Someone took (occupied) the seat. c. Previous Action: His mother bore a child. d. The dress is made of silk. e. The door is locked now. f. He bought a used car. d. Previous Action: The dress was made by someone. e. Previous Action: The door was locked by the janitor. f. Previous Action: The car was used by another owner. The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 83 EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Many people are involved in making a movie. Hollywood is located in California. Is Geraldine Chaplin related to Charlie Chaplin? We are done with the video. When you are finished with the video, return it to the store. Is the theater air-conditioned? The theater was very crowded.In some cases, we use a past participle as an adjective even though there is no previous action. The sentences to the left have no equivalent active form. a. The glass is broken. b. Don’t touch the broken glass. a. The child is lost in the park. b. Let’s take the lost child to the park office. a. The child seems tired. b. Let’s put the tired child to bed. Past participles can be used: a. after be and other linking verbs (seem, look, feel, sound, etc.). o r b. before a noun. Chaplin was a well-known actor. He was a highly paid actor. To emphasize and further describe the adjectives used as past participles, an adverb can be added. Language Notes: 1. Some phrases that contain an adverb + past participle are: a well-liked teacher a highly skilled worker a well-educated person a closely watched experiment a well-behaved child a slightly used book a well-dressed woman closely related languages a well-fed dog an extremely crowded room 2. The following are some common combinations of be + past participle: be air-conditioned be filled (with) be married (to) be accustomed (to) be finished (with) be permitted (to) be allowed (to) be gone be pleased (to) (with) (by) be born be injured be prepared (to) (for) be broken be insured be related (to) be closed be interested (in) be taken (occupied) be concerned (about) be involved (in) be used be crowded be known (for) (as) be used to be divorced (from) be located be worried (about) be done be locked be wounded be dressed be lost be educated be made (of, in) 84 Lesson 2 Underline the past participle in the following sentences. Movie theaters are crowded on Saturday night. 1. The movie theater is closed in the morning. 2. Where is the movie theater located? 3. How many people were involved in making WALL -E? 4. Children are not allowed to see some movies. 5. Many movies are made in Hollywood. 6. Ronald Reagan was involved in movies before he became a politician. 7. Chaplin was born in England. 8. He was not an educated man. 9. Chaplin was a well paid actor. 10. He was well known all over the world. 11. Charlie Chaplin was married several times. Find the mistakes and correct them. Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C. is The theater ˆlocated near my house. Are you interested in action movies? C 1. Is Halle Berry marry? 2. I’m concerned about the violence in movies. 3. Almost every seat in the theater is fill. 4. Is this seat taken? 5. How many people are involved in making a movie? 6. Walt Disney born in 1901. 7. When you’re finish with the DVD, please return it to the video store. 8. Is the Oscar make of gold? EXERCISE161616161616 EXAMPLE EXERCISE171717171717 EXAMPLES The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 85 1. In the U.S., movie stars get divorced a lot. Is this true in other countries? 2. Do you think being famous would be fun? Before You Read Read the following Web article. Pay special attention to be and get before past participles and adjectives. CD 1, TR 13 Being Famous Becoming a Hollywood star is a dream for many. Glamour, money, beauty, and even power make the occupation very attractive. However, the life of a Hollywood star can be difficult and challenging, both personally and professionally. Hollywood stars are known for their short and frequent marriages—and divorces. Elizabeth Taylor got married eight times. In fact, she married the same man (Richard Burton) twice—and divorced him twice. Britney Spears got married one day and got divorced the next day. But, of course, there are exceptions. Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward were married for 50 years, until Newman died. And Meryl Streep has been married to the same man for over 30 years. Why is being famous so difficult? Some actors get rich overnight and don’t handle their sudden wealth and fame easily. Life can be difficult in the public eye, when reporters record an actor’s every moment. Also, Hollywood stars need to look great to stay on top. They do not like to get old. Many Hollywood stars use cosmetic surgery to look young. Many work out with a personal trainer because they don’t want to get fat or out of shape. (continued) http://www.hollywood* Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton 86 Lesson 2 4Schwarzenegger can’t become president because he was not born in the U.S.5For a list of expressions with get, see Appendix C. 2.12 Past Participles and Other Adjectives with Get5 EXAMPLES EXPLANATION a. Is Julia Roberts married? b. When did she get married? a. The actress is divorced. b. She got divorced soon after she got married. a. You’re yawning. I see you are tired. b. When Arnold Schwarzenegger got tired of acting, he went into politics. a. Be + past participle describes the status of a noun over a period of time. b. Get + past participle means become. There is no reference to the continuation of this status. a. Movie stars are rich. b. A lot of people would like to get rich quickly. a. My grandfather is old. b. Most stars don’t want to get old. They want to look young forever. a. Be + adjective describes the status of a noun over a period of time. b. Get + adjective means become. Usage Note: Notice the difference between to be married, to marry, to get married. Meryl Streep is married. She has been married to the same man for many years. (Be married describes one’s status.) She married Don Gummer in 1978. (The verb marry is followed by an object.) Meryl and Don got married in 1978. (Get married is not followed by an object.) Some Hollywood actors go into politics when they get tired of acting. They use their popularity as actors to win elections. Ronald Reagan and Arnold Schwarzenegger both went from being actors to becoming governor of California. Ronald Reagan went on to become president of the U.S. 4 A famous wrestler, Jessie Ventura, even got to be governor of Minnesota. Life in the public eye seems wonderful, but it can be difficult at times. Schwarzenegger as actor Schwarzenegger as governor The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 87 Circle the correct words to complete this conversation between a young man and a young woman. A: Angelina Jolie is my favorite actress. When she (was / got) married, (example) I felt so sad. But then she (was / got) divorced just two years later, (1) I was so happy. But then, she started dating Brad Pitt. B: Happy? Sad? Do you think Angelina (is / gets) (2) interested in you? She doesn’t even know you! A: I keep sending her letters. I would like to (be / get) (3) acquainted with her. B: She’s not going to answer your letters. She ( is / gets) too rich and famous to pay attention to you. (4) A: Well, I’m an actor too, you know. B: Mostly you’re just a waiter. A: I’m not always going to be a waiter. When acting studios discover me, I’m going to be famous, and Angelina will notice me if she (gets / is) single again. (5) B: Well, it’s possible that she’ll (get / be) divorced. But you’ll be an old (6) man when, and if, you are famous. A: That doesn’t matter. Someday it will happen, and I’ll meet Angelina. B: By that time, she will (be / get) old and you won’t be interested in (7) her anymore. A: I’ll always (get / be) interested in her. She’s my one true love. (8) B: Oh, really? What does your girlfriend have to say about that? A: I never talk to her about Angelina. One time I told her how much I like Angelina, and she ( was / got) angry. (9) B: I don’t think your girlfriend has anything to worry about. EXERCISE181818181818 CD 1, TR 14 Past Participles with get Adjectives with get get accustomed to get hurt get acquainted get lost get bored get married get confused get scared get divorced get tired get dressed get used to get worried get angry get old get dark get rich get fat get sleepy get hungry get upset get nervous get well 88 Lesson 2 Summary of Lesson 2 1. Passive Voice 2. Participles Used as Adjectives Passive Voice = Be + Past Participle Use With an agent: Mickey Mouse was created by Walt Disney. Star Wars was directed by George Lucas. The passive voice can be used with an agent, especially if we want to emphasize the result of the action. Without an agent: a. Hollywood was built at the beginning of the twentieth century. b. Children are not allowed to see some movies. c. The Oscar ceremony is seen all over the world. d. I was told that you didn’t like the movie. The passive voice is usually used without an agent: a. when it is not important to mention who performed the action b. when the agent is obvious c. when the agent is not a specifi c person but people in general d. to hide the identity of the agent Note: Do not mention the agent if it is not a specifi c person. Wrong: Spanish is spoken by people in Mexico. Reagan got shot in 1981. No one got killed. Some people got wounded. Get can be used instead of be in certain conversational expressions. Do not use get when the agent is mentioned. Wrong: Reagan got shot by John Hinckley. Right: Reagan was shot by John Hinckley. Examples Explanation a. Silent movies are very interesting. b. The students are interested in the life of Charlie Chaplin. Use the present participle (a) to show that the noun (silent movies) produced a feeling. Use the past participle (b) to show that the noun (the students) received a feeling. The movie theater will be closed at midnight. Is this seat taken? Use the past participle to show the result of a previous action. Previous Actions: Someone will close the theater. Someone took the seat. The child is lost. The bus is crowded. Where is Hollywood located? Some past participles are not related to a previous action. She got confused when the teacher explained participles. I got lost on my way to your house. She got upset when she couldn’t find her keys. Use get with past participles and other adjectives to mean become. The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 89 1. Use be, not do / does / did to make negatives and questions with the passive voice. wasn’t My watch didn’t made in Japan. was When did the movie fi lmed? 2. Don’t use the passive voice with intransitive verbs. The accident was happened at 10:30 p.m. Her grandfather was died three years ago. 3. Don’t confuse the -ing form with the past participle. eaten The popcorn was eating by the child. 4. Don’t forget the -ed ending for a regular past participle. ed The fl oor was wash ˆby the janitor. d I’m very tire ˆnow. I have to go to sleep. 5. Don’t forget to use a form of be in a passive sentence. was The movie ˆseen by everyone in my family. 6. Use by to show the agent of the action. by Tom Sawyer was written for Mark Twain. 7. Use an object pronoun after by . her My mother prepared the soup. The salad was prepared by she too. 8. In questions and negatives, use do, does, or did when you use get with the passive voice. Did Were you get fi red from your job? Editing Advice 90 Lesson 2 9. Don’t forget to include a verb (usually be) before a participle used as an adjective. is My college ˆlocated on the corner of Broadway and Wilson Avenues. was The movie ˆboring, so we left. 10. Use be, not do, with past participles used as adjectives. isn’t My sister doesn’t married. Are Do you bored in your math class? Editing Quiz Some of the shaded words and phrases have mistakes. Find the mistakes and correct them. If the shaded words are correct, write C. A: Did you ever see the movie Titanic? It was the most successful (example) film ever make. (example) B: I saw part of it. It was shown on my f light to the U.S. But I never (1) finished watching it because I fell asleep. It was a long and tiring (2) f light. I was too exhaust to keep my eyes open. (3) A: You were probably bore because you saw it on a tiny screen. It (4) (5) should seen on a large screen or at a theater. It’s such an interested (6) (7) movie. It was direct for James Cameron. (8) (9) B: I’ve never heard of James Cameron. What else was he directed? (10) A: The Terminator movies. And Avatar was directed by he too. Avatar is (11) (12) a 3-D movie. B: What’s that? I’ve never heard of 3-D.C made The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 91 A: It’s a movie with a lot of special effects. Special glasses are worn during (13) the movie, which make everything appear three-dimensional. B: Wow! I’d like to see a movie like that. A: I saw it in 3-D at a theater. I was eaten popcorn when the movie (14) was started and then, suddenly, I couldn’t believe what I was seeing. (15) B: When did Avatar made? (16) A: In 2009. B: Is it still in the movie theaters? A: No, but the DVD can rented. (17) B: Can it be seeing in 3-D on DVD? (18) A: I don’t know. B: So, tell me. What was happened at the end of Titanic? Was the main (19) (20) character died? Or did the man and woman get marry? (21) (22) (23) A: I’m not going to tell you the ending and spoil it for you. I have the DVD. I’ve been watched it three times. Do you want to borrow it? (24) B: Thanks. I’d love to. Lesson 2 Test/Review Fill in the blanks with the passive or active form of the verb in parentheses ( ). Use the tense indicated. The movie will be lmed in New York. (future: film) The movie director has won many awards. (present perfect: win) 1. Which actor next year? (future: choose) PART111 EXAMPLES (continued) 92 Lesson 2 2. Meryl Streep in many movies. (present perfect: see) 3. My sister popcorn during movies. (simple present: not/eat) 4. A new movie about World War II. (present continuous: make) 5. I the Oscar ceremony last year. (past: not/see) 6. The audience the movie. (past: enjoy) 7. We our tickets tomorrow. (future: buy) 8. Her parents her to watch R-rated movies. (present: not/permit) 9. While the movie , one of the actors (past continuous: make) . (past: hurt) 10. Star Wars is a great movie. It on a large (should/see) screen, not on a TV screen. 11. Today’s animation on a computer. It (simple present: do) by hand. (simple present: not/draw) 12. Charlie Chaplin interested in acting at (past: become) the age of five. 13. Chaplin the U.S. in 1952 and (past: leave) in 1972. (past: return) 14. President Lincoln while he (past: shoot) a play. He a few (past continuous: watch) (past: die) days later. The killer . (past: catch) The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 93 The following sentences would be better in the passive voice. Change to the passive voice using the same tense as the underlined verbs. Do not mention the agent. They considered Charlie Chaplin a great actor. Charlie Chaplin was considered a great actor. 1. They use subtitles for foreign movies. 2. They don’t permit children to see this movie. 3. When did they build this theater? 4. Someone is cleaning the theater now. 5. Someone has left a popcorn box on the f loor. 6. Someone will make a movie about Chaplin’s life. 7. When is someone going to close the theater? The following sentences would be better in the active voice. Change to the active voice using the same tense as the underlined verbs. The movie has been seen by my whole family. My whole family has seen the movie. 1. I will be driven to the theater by my sister. 2. The movie wasn’t seen by me. 3. The movie is being filmed by George Lucas. 4. A decision should be made by the director. 5. A new costume is needed by the actor. PART222 EXAMPLE PART333333 EXAMPLE (continued) 94 Lesson 2 6. Were you met at the theater by your friend? 7. When was the DVD broken by the child? Fill in the blanks with the present participle or the past participle of the verb in parentheses ( ). The movie was very good. It wasn’t boring at all. (bore) I liked the ending of the movie. I felt very satis ed with the ending. (satisfy) 1. We read an story about Charlie Chaplin. (interest) 2. He became in acting when he was a child. (interest) 3. He was well all over the world. (know) 4. When he left the U.S. in 1952, he was not to re-enter. (allow) 5. Chaplin was four times. (marry) 6. He was an actor. (entertain) 7. I am never during one of his movies. (bore) 8. There’s an new movie at the Fine Arts Theater. (excite) 9. Are you in seeing it with me? (interest) 10. The movie theater is on Saturday night. (crowd) 11. I was when I saw Friday the 13th. (frighten) 12. It was a very movie. (frighten) 13. I didn’t like the movie I saw last week. I was very in it. (disappoint) 14. My friend liked the movie. He thought it was a very movie. (excite) PART444 EXAMPLES The Passive Voice; Participles Used as Adjectives; Get + Participles and Adjectives 95 Activities ClassroomClassroom Expansion 1 Tell if these statements are true in your native country. Form a small group and discuss your answers in your group. 1. Popcorn is sold in movie theaters. 2. Movie tickets can be bought on the Internet. 3. Most people have a DVD player and watch movies at home. 4. Musicals are popular. 5. Many movies are shown in the same theater at the same time. 6. Movie tickets are expensive. 7. Senior citizens pay less money to enter a movie theater. 8. Children are not allowed to see some movies. 9. Actors are well-paid. 10. Many famous actors get divorced. 11. Actors are given awards for great performances. 12. Animated films are popular. 2 Make a list of the movies you’ve seen recently. Compare your list with another student’s list. About It Talk 1 Is it important to give awards to actors and actresses? Why or why not? 2 Have you ever seen an Academy Awards ceremony? What did you think of it? 3 How are American fi lms different from fi lms made in other countries? 4 Who are your favorite actors and actresses? 5 What American movies have been popular in your native country? 96 Lesson 2 About It Write 1 Write about an entertainment event that you have recently attended (such as a movie in a theater, a concert, an art fair, or a museum exhibit). Did you enjoy it? Why or why not? Was there anything surprising or unusual about it? 2 Write a short summary of a movie you saw recently. 3 Write about a famous person you admire. Give a short biography of this person and tell why you admire him or her. I really admire actress Angelina Jolie. She s not only an amazing and talented actress, shes also a humanitarian. When she was filming in Cambodia, she was shocked by the conditions she saw there . . . For more practice using grammar in context, please visit our Web site. A Person I Admire EXAMPLE To download the pdf, simply point your cursor to the pdf above: 1) wait for the download button to show up at the top. OR 2) right click your mouse, then click "save as".