Position of adverbs.pdf (agendaweb.org)

Position of adverbs

alt : Position of adverbs.pdf Position of adverbs I. Three positions II. Adverbs used in one, two or all three positions III. Position of adverbs of manner, place and time in one sentence I. Three positions of adverbs 1. Front Adverb Subject Verb Gradually, he changed his mind. 2. Mid a) Subject Adverb Main verb They ------------------- always speak English. b) Subject “be” Adverb ------------------- We are almost ------------------- ready. c) Subject Auxiliary Adverb Main verb I have never said that. She will probably join us. This can hardly be true. Notes: - With main verbs , the adverb comes before the verb: They always speak English. - With “be”, it comes after the verb: We are almost ready . - With auxiliaries and modals , it is placed after the auxiliary/modal (between the auxiliary/modal and the main verb): I have never said that. She will probably join us. This can hardly be true. If there are two auxiliaries or a modal and an auxiliary, the adverb is placed after the first verb: The experiment has always been done like this. They may never have used this method . 3. End Subject Verb Adverb He spoke about his plans at the meeting. She has been attending the English class regularly . Note: Below you will find some basic guidelines and examples of usage. You should, however, be aware that there may be several options, depending on what the speaker wants to put emphasis on. Neither the rules nor the examples pretend to be exhaustive. Remember that the positions listed here may not be suitable in al l contexts. In some cases, the position of the adverb may also modify its meaning. Nevertheles s, there is no need to despair: through intensive reading of English texts and listening to native speakers you will develop a feeling for these words and their place in the sentence. II. Adverbs used in one, two or all three positions 1. Adverbs used mostly in mid position frequency always, ever, hardly ever, never, often, rarely, s eldom degree almost, hardly, nearly, quite, scarcely probability certainly, definitely, probably time just He has never attended an international conference. I quite understand what you mean. He is probably back. 2. Adverbs used mostly in front or mid position frequency/time sometimes, usually; eventually, finally I sometimes work till late at night. Sometimes , I work till late at night. 3. Adverbs used mostly in mid or end position frequency constantly, continuously, regularly degree completely, entirely, greatly time already, lately, recently The temperature was constantly rising. The temperature was ris ing constantly . I completely agree with you. I agree with you completely. 4. Adverbs used mostly in end or front position place above, here, there, at home, upstairs time/frequency in January, last year; as a rule, from time to time , once probability maybe, perhaps Notes: - With adverbs of place, time and frequency, the end position is more common; the front position is used to give importance or draw attention to the adverb: You will find a more detailed description below. Below you will find a more detailed description. I offered him help once, but he refused it. Once I offered him help, but he refused it. I started to learn English last year. Last year , I started to learn English. - With maybe and perhaps , the front position is more common. Perhaps , you should ask him for help. 5. Adverbs used in any of the three positions manner briefly, carefully, easily, quickly, slowly time/frequency now, soon, immediately, suddenly; occasionally aspect economically, financially, logically, scientificall y, technically probability apparently, certainly, clearly, evidently, obviousl y Manner: In this chapter we briefly examine the latest developments in … . Briefly, I think we should join this project. (in brief) Let me descr ibe briefly how we arrived at this conclusion. He explained the situation briefly. Not: He explained briefly the situation. If the verb has an object , the adverb comes after the object . Only when th e object is long , the adverb may precede it : We considered briefly our next steps in that unexpected situation. Time: The situation suddenly changed. The situatio n changed suddenly. Suddenly , the situation changed. The mid pos ition is the most common. The end position draws attention t o the adverb. The front position is the least commo n; it is used to raise interest in what is coming next. Aspect: Technically, this is no problem. This is no problem, technically . This is, technically, no problem. The end and front positions are the most common. Probability: This is obviously a mistake. This is a m istake, obviously . Obviously, this is a mistake. 6. Adverbs used mostly in front position comment/opinion admittedly, evidently, hopefully, naturally, surpri singly sentence linkers however, consequently, as a result, nevertheless Comment/opinion: Surprisingly, the experiment did not fail. Sometimes t hese adverbs may also come in mid position: He was evidently nervous. Sentence linkers: This is a simple and safe procedure. However, you should not underesti mate the risk. See also Guidelines for Academic Writing: Text structure (Se ntence linker s). Note the use of commas before and after the adverb in some cases. For mor e information see Guidelines for Academic Writing: Punctuation. III. Position of adverbs of manner, place, and time i n one sentence Normal position Manner Place Time He worked very hard last semester. I didn´t participate in that conference last year. He explained that problem thoroughly at the seminar last week. The position can be changed in order to - emphasize/draw attention to one adverb: Last year I didn´t participate in that conf erence. - avoid putting the longest adverb in the middle: I lived quite happily for one year in one of t he remotest places in the world. - avoid placing too many adverbs in the end positio n: In the mountains it is dangerous to drive quickly in winter . See also A Remedial Course in English Grammar: Word order (Statements). EXERCISES I. Tick the place where you would put the adverbs in b old type. That has occurred to me. never I have appreciated his help. always He lost his job last year. nearly I forgot to tell you about the change. completely He could have done anything else. hardly The lab is open all night. often Have you been to England? ever He has returned from abroad. just I see him these days. rarely We expected him to be there on time. certainly She is at home in the evening. hardly ever They are complaining about something. constantly I slept the night before the exam. hardly She needs a holiday soon. definitely He could say one word. scarcely This method is used for such purposes. seldom II. In which positions are the adverbs most likely to be used? Tick their numbers. In some cases there are more options than one. 1. We have 1) made 2) some radical changes 3). (already) 2. 1) The discussion 2) takes 3) one hour. (usually) 3. 1) He 2) helps us 3) with the experiments 4). (sometimes) 4. The world 1) is 2) changing 3). (constantly) 5. 1) They 2) agreed 3) on the higher education ref orm 4). (finally) 6. They 1) discussed 2) the issue 3). (thoroughly) 7. 1) The problem will 2) be 3) solved by tomorrow 4). (hopefully) 8. 1) The spring semester 2) ends 3) at the end of May 4). (as a rule) 9. 1) I 2) could 3) help you 4). (maybe) 10. 1) They 2) discussed 3) the differences between the calculated and measured values 4). (thoroughly) III. Put the adverbs in the position which is the m ost likely in the given context. 1. regularly a) Accidents …………………… occur ………………………. at this crossing. (= u sually) b) They …………………….. meet …………………….. every three months. 2. greatly a) The prices ……………………… varied …………………………… . b) I ………………………. admired his courage …………………………. . 3. completely a) I ………………………… forgot ………………………… to tell you about the change. b) If you can´t ………………………. trust him ……………………….., don´t let him handle the grant. 4. soon a) We didn´t have to persuade him. He …………………. decide d to join our team ………………. . b) He ……………………. decided to join our team …………………………. as he was ve ry much interested in our project. 5. once a) We have ……………………….. met …………………….. before. (= one time; j ednou, jedenkrát) b) He …………………….. told us ………………………. about his life in Africa. (= at some point in the past; jednou, kdysi) IV. Put the adverbs listed below in different posit ions in the sentences. Explain in what situations the speaker/writer might use the differe nt options. 1. The lecture was over. John left the room. immediately ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2. He pressed the button. carefully ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3. That conclusion is wrong. apparently ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ….. 4. Their argument makes sense. logically ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 5. He entered the room. slowly ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Such behaviour isn´t acceptable. socially ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… … V. Complete the sentences. Use the words and phrase s in brackets and put them in the most likely non-emphatic positions. 1. The students waited for the Dean … /for half an hour, patiently, in the secretary´s office/ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Don´t take what he says. /seriously/ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3. He will be …. . /late/today/probably/ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. We discussed this problem … /at the seminar/ last/on Monday/ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. The exam requirements will remain the same … /t his year/hopefully/ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6. He sits … . /for two hours/every evening/usual ly/at his computer/ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7. She has done … /well/in maths/this semester/r eally/ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8. Read your paper … before mailing it. /at least/ carefully/twice. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9. She is coming … /on Monday morning/certainly/ to the lecture/ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10. He stays … /in the evening/hardly ever/at home / …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… To download the pdf, simply point your cursor to the pdf above: 1) wait for the download button to show up at the top. OR 2) right click your mouse, then click "save as".